Quote from Karl Helge Haagensen:
“The S-100 demonstrator gives all the information I need in one place, so it gives added value to assist me in my area of responsibility”.
Purpose of test
For this test the intention was to produce several products built on the S-100 Universal Hydrographic Data Model, and use them together in one application during a commercial voyage in confined and challenging waters. The main intention was to demonstrate the advantages of using compatible S-100 products in navigation planning and voyage execution processes, with an emphasis on the S-129 Under Keel Clearance product.
Selected area for test
- OMC International:
- Chris Hens – General Manager Product Design & Development
- Claes Møller – Chief Executive Officer
- Tern Ocean – Captain and crew
- Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA):
- Odd Sveinung Hareide – Senior Adviser
- Andor Dagfinn Antonsen – Pilot Master
- Karl Helge Ness Haagensen – Pilot
- John Morten Klingsheim – Senior Engineer
- Norwegian Hydrographic Service (NHS):
- Hilde Sande Borck – Chief Engineer
- Geir Gunleiksrud – Senior Engineer
- Kongsberg Digital (KDI):
- Thomas Hammer – Team Lead 3D Visualization at Kongsberg Digital
- Trygve Aasen – Software Developer at Kongsberg Digital
- Terje Henriksen – Software Developer at Kongsberg Digital
- The Norwegian Meteorological Institute (NMI):
- Gjermund Haugen – Assistant Manager, The Weather Forecast in Northern Norway
- Electronic Chart Centre (ECC):
- Svein Skjæveland – Project coordinator Tjeldsundet test / ECC Manager International Standardization
- Sølvi Tunge – Project coordinator / ECC Key Account Manager
- Kirsten Bøe – Project Manager / ECC Managing Director
- Kjetil Andersen – ECC Sr. Systems Developer
The test was separated into 4 phases:
Phase 1 – Data Production
Several products were created, involving production of S-101 (conversion from S-57) by ECC, S-102 and S-111 by NHS and S-129 by OMC International. The following table shows the different data products that have been used:
|S-57 ENC (WMS)||Norwegian Hydrographic Service||Used as an overlay on the high resolution bathymetry model.|
|S-101 ENC (WMS)||Electronic Chart Centre||For the test area, used as an overlay comparison to S-57.|
|S-102 Bathymetry||Norwegian Hydrographic Service||The data used as a high resolution bathymetry model.|
|Water level||Norwegian Hydrographic Service||The lack of S-104 product specification maturity led to traditional format being used.|
|S-111 Surface Currents||Norwegian Hydrographic Service||The data used for surface current conditions.|
|S-129 Under Keel Clearance Management||OMC International||The data used for the vessel specific UKC overlay product.|
|Routes||Norwegian Coastal Administration||The lack of S-421 product specification maturity led to traditional format RTZ being used.|
|Seabed area information (WMS)||Geological Survey of Norway (NGU)||Detailed marine sedimentation overlay.|
Below you can find examples of the data types used in the S-100 Demonstrator
During the production process the producers built experience on production software and accompanying IHO standards, exposing potential challenges and possible valuable feedback to IHO standardisation working groups. Their contributions were also deemed valuable for potential future production lines within their organisations.
Phase 2 – Data Flow Infrastructures
The flow of data from producer to end user, through PRIMAR as a service provider, was demonstrated. Facilitating support for the S-100 Data protection scheme using the PRIMAR Remote Update Protocol was a key element, creating secure and user friendly connections directly in the end user application (S-100 Demonstrator) for direct access to the data. It was also demonstrated how S-100 products such as S.102 and S.111 could be used as input data in the creation of S.129 and how S.129 updated plans produced at 1 minute intervals were automatically downloaded and made available in the S-100 Demonstrator application.
Phase 3 – S-100 Demonstrator Implementation
The S-100 Demonstrator application was further developed with new functionality to use and display S-101 (through WMS API), S-111 and S-129. Various interaction functionality, like turning on/off information were developed. One example would be the ability to turn off route and control points in dividually in teh S.129 product to avoid clutter in display of the data.
In addition to support of the mentioned products, an automated update integration of the predicted water level datastream was also developed.
Phase 4 – Test Execution
The test execution consisted of two parts. One was to determine the S-100 Demonstrator, with the S-100 products, usability for the voyage planning process, the other to determine the usability in the voyage execution process. In the days before voyage execution S-129 plans were produced regularly, using daily produced S.111 products and updated water level predictions in the calculation and production of the S-129 products. The plans were assessed by the Pilot and designated training personnel. The test took place on the vessel Tern Ocean, owned and operated by the company Terntank, and the vessel Captain and crew were informed of the project and test requirements in the week before the voyage execution.
The operational test execution was initially planned on the 3rd December 2021 at 0330 – 0730. However, due to challenging conditions, the test execution was postponed to 3rd December at 0930 – 1330.
On the day of the voyage, Tern Ocean was boarded with a Pilot boat at approximately 0930. Upon boarding, 4 individual computers were assembled and used to run the S-100 Demonstrator application. Pilot plugs, positioned on the bridge wings, ensured that a position accuracy of 1cm was achieved. During voyage execution the Pilot used the S-100 Demonstrator as a navigation support system, in addition to the vessels navigation system, and the Personal Pilot Unit (PPU) SEAiq. Designated personnel also used the S.100 Demonstrator recording the voyage and demonstrating the capabilities for those of the crew members on watch. When leaving the designated test area, there was interaction with crew members gathering feedback on their views of the S-100 Demonstrator capabilities and the different layers of S-100 information. Upon completion of the voyage execution, all involved companies were given individual surveys to capture their feedback and experiences from the test participation.
As an addition to the 4 main phases, a trial of the PRIMAR RTZ service was also conducted. The Norwegian Coastal Administration is in the process of providing a number of reference routes for Norwegian waters. These routes are made available in the PRIMAR service, giving the opportunity to deliver both ENCs and routes to end users in one delivery. During the test Tern Ocean’s Navigation Officer accessed and downloaded several routes covering the Tjeldsundet area from the PRIMAR system. One route was selected and loaded into the vessels navigation system (Transas ECDIS), simplifying the route planning process.
Data Type Descriptions
|Production tool||ESRI S-101 Converter 220.127.116.11|
|Tool parameters||Feature Catalogue used: S-101FC_1.0.0_20190409.xml|
|Production process||The Norwegian ENCs in usage band 4 and 5 covering the designated test area were downloaded from the PRIMAR service and converted into S-101 datasets.|
The S-101 datasets were then uploaded into the PRIMAR QA test environment and released there for use in a QA WMS service.
|Datasets||NO4D2732 —–> 101NO004D2732|
NO5E2733 —–> 101NO005E2733
NO5F2732 —–> 101NO005F2732
|Production tool||CARIS Base Editor versjon: 5.4.8 (beta)|
|Production process||General production information:https://s102.no/hydrographic-office/|
|Resolution||2 x 2 metres|
|Modelling algorithm||Shoalest depth True Position|
|Coordinate system||Euref89/UTM zone 33N (EPSG:25833)|
|Vertical reference system||Sjokartnull/Mean Sea Level|
|Note from producer||– This S-102 dataset is intended for test purposes and is not an official navigation product.|
– The dataset has been produced in accordance with the IHO S-100 Standard, but S-102 is currently still under development.
– The dataset is intended for testing development and demonstration purposes and is provided «as is».
-The nautical chart (ENC/Paperchart) remains the official navigation product.
– For more information or feedback, please contact email@example.com
Norwegian Hydrographic Survey have created several test datasets covering the area of interest using forecasts from the Meteorological Institute (ROMS Norkst800 his/ocean_his.fc.nc).
|Tool parameters||No tool parameters, but several choices set for the S-111 production, like:|
– typeOfCurrentData = 6 (Hydrodynamic model forecast)
– sufaceCurrentDepths = -5 metres.
– dataCodingFormat (dcf) = 2 (Regularly gridded data at one or more times).
|Production process||Forecasts from the Meteorological Institute (ROMS Norkyst800 his/ocean_his.fc.nc). Download the latest forecast for the area of interest, convert this to S-111 using python scripts.|
|Datasets||Several datasets were created.|
|Tool parameters (if any)||N/A|
|Production process||For specific information on the production process at OMC International:Tjeldsunet S-100 testbed UKC Modelling Public|
|Datasets||Several datasets were created.|
- S-101, S-102, S-111 and S-129 data were created successfully. The production did give all producers valuable experiences on the production process and potential challenges in the internal workflow.
- The various aspects of data flow infrastructure between the project participants was covered. This includes:
- Successful implementation of several API interfaces.
- Support for the PRIMAR Remote Update Protocol and the IHO S-100 data protection scheme.
- Data delivery to PRIMAR VPN.
- Several new developments were conducted in the S-100 Demonstrator to facilitate this test. This includes:
- S-101 WMS integration.
- Seabed area WMS integration.
- S-111 integration.
- S-129 integration.
- Water level integration.
- PRIMAR Remote Update Protocol integration.
- The S-100 Demonstrator, supporting all the involved data types, was used as a navigational support tool for the Pilot during a commercial voyage. This includes it being used for:
- Voyage planning purposes.
- Voyage operational purposes.
- The use of the S-100 Demonstrator added significant value:
- It was found especially valuable for planning purposes.
- Having access to all information in one application was valuable for the end user.
- The access to S-129 raised the end user awareness of no go areas.
- Improvement of situational awareness.
- As a source for relevant information, processed by the end user especially in the planning process, it contributed to increasing the navigational safety.
- Economical, environmental and safety benefits for the vessel and vessel company were demonstrated.
- The Route Info Service from NCA, where reference routes created by NCA are available in the PRIMAR service, proved to be valuable in the onboard voyage planning process.
- Having access to the products together in one end user system opens for new opportunities of interaction and presentation of the data that may add additional value to navigational safety, by increasing the end user understanding of the data content. Examples of this are:
- Using the S-111 surface current information as an overlay on the ENC and bathymetry model. This presents the mariner with an understanding of how the current situation is along the route, and also with possible fluctuations in the current conditions.
- Using S-129 as an overlay on the bathymetry model together with the ENC overlay. This presents the mariner with an understanding of the UKC conditions in relation to the seabed structure and ENC content.
Targets and Expected Outcome Results
Below is the description of goal accomplishments for the targets of the test, and for the expected outcomes that were envisaged prior to the test. The results are summarised below each target.
|Target 1||Demonstrate how S-102 and S-111 products can be produced.|
|Result||S-102 and S-111 data production was demonstrated with successful production by the NHS.|
|Target 2||Demonstrate how an S-129 product is calculated partly based on other S-100 products such as S-102 and S-111, in addition to water level information on traditional format.|
|Result||S-129 production using S-102 and S-111 as data input sources was demonstrated with successful production by OMC International.|
|Target 3||Demonstrate how an S-129 product can be used in an end user application (S-100 Demonstrator) to provide more available space, both vertically and horizontally, for navigation during a commercial voyage.|
|Result||This was proven, by making S-129 plans where the UKC challenges the navigable space compared to traditional navigation. In an S-57 ENC in ECDIS, Tjeldsundet is closed when draught is larger than 10 metres. |
Using draught > 10 metres in an traditional S-57 ECDIS closes passage through Tjeldsundet.
When creating S-129 plan for draught 10.2 metres, where the components water level, currents, squat etc are parameters in the calculation, the navigable space increases and opens the passage in time intervals during the day when conditions are available.
Using draught > 10.2 metres in an S-129 plan opens the passage through Tjeldsundet.
During test execution the conditions were good due to the high water level conditions, and an extended navigable space using S-129 was not demonstrated.
|Target 4||Demonstrate how extended navigational space theoretically can be used to load more cargo on a commercial voyage.|
|Result||Theoretically this is possible, but was not demonstrated. When using the S-100 products together, either the combination of S-57/S-102 with water level input, or by using S-129, extended navigable space vertically is created. This gives the opportunity to load more cargo (i. e. the ability to increase vessel draft). Over time, this can potentially contribute to a fixed amount of cargo being carried on fewer voyages. |
During test execution the vessel did not carry more cargo than it would normally do on this voyage.
|Target 5||Demonstrate how extended navigational space can be used to shorten the transportation distance significantly.|
|Result||During test execution the conditions were good due to high water level conditions, and an extended navigable space using S-129 was not demonstrated. However, as the vessel was able to go through Tjeldsundet due to this test, a reduced sailing distance of approximately 65 NM was achieved.|
As the voyage from Brofjorden to Harstad would at one point change course to either go through Tjeldsundet or west of Lofoten/Vesterålen, the distance from this potential point to Harstad was calculated for both options. The result indicates a ~ 65 NM shorter voyage when sailing through Tjeldsundet.
The sailing distance through Tjeldsundet was approximately 65 NM (234-169) shorter.
|Target 6||Demonstrate the potential social economic benefits when the use of S-129 widens the navigational space in a narrow area.|
|Result||The following theoretical calculation indicates how a reduced sailing distance could be achieved annually, under the presumption of 5 voyages per month during a year:|
Reduced sailing distance 1 voyage = 65 NM. (5 vessels a month x 65 nm) x 12 = 3900 NM not sailed annually.
From a socio-economic standpoint the reduction in sailing distance would contribute to reduction in the total national CO2 emissions. If those reductions could also be multiplied by implementing similar solutions at other challenging locations the impact would be even bigger. Potential reduction in the number of voyages due to more cargo carried on each voyage would also contribute to reductions.
In general, S-129 could contribute to more efficiency in the transportation logistics and an increase in navigational safety as a result of improved planning processes. From a socio-economic perspective this would be positive, reducing the distance and time needed for transportation of important cargo, and also potentially saving national resources from unwanted occurrences of marine accidents due to groundings etc.
|Target 7||Demonstrate how a graphical representation of navigational significant information can improve the mariner’s situational awareness – and as such add benefit to the safety of navigation.|
|Result||The presentation of the data in S-100 Demonstrator, especially the ability to access different data products and interact with them in one application, may improve situational awareness and as such contribute positively to safety of navigation. This was demonstrated by the Pilots experience of an added awareness to the no go areas in S-129.|
The usability of the information presented in the S-100 Demonstrator was especially considered to be useful for planning purposes. Contributing to improved planning, it is assumed these improved processes could contribute to a better understanding of expected challenges and as such contribute to increased situational awareness.
Also, the S-129 products “forward in time” mechanism could help the mariner improve his understanding of conditions ahead in time, and as such improve the situational awareness.
|Target 8||Demonstrate how S-100 products used together in combination in a single end user application can create value for the maritime industry.|
|Result||Value created:Economical benefits are achieved when:The sailing distance decreases. The vessels can take more cargo.The number of voyages may be reduced. The planning process improves (*). Safety benefits are achieved when:The planning process improves.The situational awareness increases.Environmental benefits are achieved when:Less fuel is used and CO2/NOx emissions are reduced accordingly.The planning process improves (*).|
(*) Improved planning may contribute to more accurate arrival times for the vessel before entering a piloted area. Unnecessary waiting time could be avoided and a customization of speed could be used. This could increase efficiency and cause potential savings when e.g speed is reduced to avoid early arrival at pilot pickup.
This test has shown how the information provided in the S-100 Demonstrator can be used for navigation purposes in challenging and confined waters, and as such contribute to shortening the sailing distance. There are national and international financial initiatives available for the shipping industry concerning environmental savings (co2 and NOx), thus this also provides potential opportunities for economical savings. More information is available at the following locations:https://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/Pages/Reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-ships.aspxhttps://www.sdir.no/sjofart/fartoy/miljo/forebygging-av-forurensning-fra-skip/utslipp-til-luft/https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/86343b61b0b9451f9c9a9b4403fc473c/maritimt-forum—del-2.pdf
|Target 9||Demonstrate how a tool like S-100 Demonstrator with support for S-129 is useful during the voyage planning process.|
|Result||It was demonstrated by the Pilot’s experience that S-129 was especially useful in the voyage planning process. The provision of updated plans in the days before voyage helped in the planning process, when making considerations for safe passage through the test area. |
The inbuilt time factor in the S-129 product, where the displayed information gives the end user a visual presentation of the conditions ahead in time based on the expected presence of vessel along the route, was very helpful. In comparison to traditional navigation this is an added value in the planning process.
|Target 10||Demonstrate how a tool like S-100 Demonstrator with support for S-129 is useful during the voyage execution process.|
|Result||The presentation of the S-129 product raised the Pilots awareness of the no go areas, and as such proved to be valuable. During the voyage the S-100 Demonstrator and S-129 were used as a support system for navigation. The Pilots preparations were thorough, and the conditions optimal sailing on high tidal water. During the voyage execution S-129 was used to follow the route and route corridor being part of the S-129 product. |
The route and route corridor displayed in the S-100 Demonstrator.
|Target 11||Demonstrate how the precursor to S-421 (route plan based on S-100), being provided as national reference routes in RTZ format, add value during the voyage planning process.|
|Result||The successful download of routes from the PRIMAR service and installment of a reference route in the vessels navigation system proved to be very helpful for the Navigation Officer during the planning process. This saved the Navigation Officer time during his planning preparations. The availability and use of the reference route was considered to be a great improvement in the planning process.|
|Target 12||Demonstrate how the reference routes (RTZ) from the Norwegian Coastal Administration have been implemented in the PRIMAR Service, thus giving an opportunity to test the PRIMAR Chart Catalogue interface.|
|Result||This was demonstrated by the Navigation Officer when accessing the PRIMAR Chart Catalogue interface and downloading the reference routes available in the test area.|
|Target 13||Demonstrate how we accomplish in-depth knowledge on ownership, accessibility, quality and challenges related to the different S-1xx data types.|
|Result||During the data production process preparations, the ownership and availability of different S-1xx data types was revealed:S-101 will be provided by the NHS being the organisation responsible for provision of Electronic Navigational Charts. Currently no such data, except for test purposes, are produced. S-102 was produced by the NHS being the organisation responsible for official hydrographic chart products. Currently no such data, except for test purposes, are produced. S-104 (although not produced in this test) will in the future be produced by the NHS being the organisation responsible for official water level surveys and dissemination of those. Currently no such data is produced. S-111 was produced by the NHS for this test, based on a model provided by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. For future production it is not decided which one of the two organisations that will be providing the surface current products. Currently the Norwegian Meteorological Institute is the official provider of surface current forecasts. Currently no such data, except for test purposes, are produced. S-129 was produced by OMC International. Future provision of this product may also be delivered in tailored solutions as the one OMC International or other organisations may provide. Currently no such data, except for test purposes, are produced. S-411/S-412/S-413 (although not produced in this test) may in the future be produced by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Currently no such data is produced. S-421 will probably be produced by the Norwegian Coastal Agency as an extension of their existing Reference Route Service. Currently no such data is produced. |
During test data production, quality discussions came up, revealing a need for better understanding of the end user need. Understanding those needs are essential for producing products at the right quality level.
Challenges related to production of the products were discovered, and valuable experience from the test production was gained by the producing companies.
All the S-100 product specifications used to create data in this test were at a maturity level where they are to be used for test and implementation purposes. It was therefore not surprising that several issues were discovered during production and validation.
|Target 14||Demonstrate how we, by working on the identified selection of S-1xx data types, can contribute to the ongoing development of the IHO product standards.|
|Result||Throughout the test descriptions, registered as outcome of the tests, feedback to IHO and IHO Working Groups involved in S-100 development are registered. Different types of feedback will be provided to:IHO Secretariat. IHO S-98 Project Team. IHO S-102 Project Team. IHO S-111 Project Team. IHO S-129 Project Team. |
In addition to the above mentioned instances, a report of the test will be provided to the IHO S-100 Working Group.
|Target 15||Demonstrate the data flow infrastructure in an S-100 data delivery service supporting S-100 Part 15 encryption and data protection.|
|Result||This was demonstrated by the development for support of the PRIMAR Remote Update Protocol and the S-100 Data Protection Scheme by Kongsberg Digital and OMC International. The figure below illustrates the Remote Update implementation between PRIMAR and OMC International and between PRIMAR and the S-100 Demonstrator in the data flow infrastructure. The S-100 Data Protection Scheme was implemented within the dataflow structures represented by the dotted red line. |
The dataflow infrastructure.
As an outcome of the test the following overarching benefits related to commercial voyages, pilot operations and data production were expected. During the test the expected benefits were proven, either as a direct result of the test execution or as an expected effect of the test results.
|Benefit 1 – Fuel reduction||More cargo onboard and a shorter sailing route will contribute to reduction in fuel consumption.||√|
|Benefit 2 – Environmental savings||The CO2 and NOx emission will be reduced due to reduction in sailing distance. More cargo onboard reduces the number of voyages necessary to transport a fixed size cargo, and as such contribute to emission reduction.||√|
|Benefit 3 – Economical savings||A reduction in fuel consumption and a potential reduction in necessary voyages indicates potential cost savings.||√|
|Benefit 4 – Better vessel exploitation||A demonstrated potential for better exploitation of vessels operating in narrow waters.||√|
|Benefit 5 – Increased situational awareness and information sharing||S-100 Demonstrator is expected to portray navigational significant information being more human recognizable than traditional tools by using 3D portrayal on the underlying S-102 data model. As such it is deemed to be more suitable for information sharing/understanding of the situation. E.g. between Pilot and Captain/crew.||√|
|Benefit 6 – Uptake of S-1xx production||Increased knowledge within national and commercial data producing organisations on production of data on the S-100 format.||√|